5 Basic Types of Welding Positions – Parameters, Preparation, & Technique

5 Basic Types of Welding Positions

To achieve the best welding positions, you must have insight into the following components: parameters, functioning, processing, and preparation technique to get the best results.

As a reader and a welding user, you must understand the basic techniques of handling welding machines or equipment, and that can only be achieved if you follow certain weld positions that will enhance your welding style.

Types of Welding Positions

Some basic types of welding positions include vertical, horizontal, flat, and overhead, but this article includes 10 welding positions that will help you perform groove and fillet welds.

Before we begin, you  must be aware of the alphabet used in the process of welding, such as:

  • G indicates Groove
  • F indicates Fillet

These two are types of weld joints.

The weld number that is given to each type of weld is given because it indicates the weld position, such as:

  • 1G, 2G, 3G, or 4G
  • 1F, 2F, 3F, or 4F

This type of weld position and indication shows the operator how to use and understand the weld joint.

What is Welding Position?

Choosing the correct type of welding position comes later. First, you must understand the proper welding position for the non-welders who think that expert welders sit in their position and start welding from the comfort of their chairs. But, it is not the case.

The expert welders choose the right yet comfortable, valuable position for the metal or any equipment welding. Then they start groove welding, overhead welds, horizontal position welds, pipe welding position, vertical welding, vertical stick welding, or vertical MIG welding.

Welding position is a positional technique that will help you join different types of metals at multiple angles. Typically 5 basic types of welding positions are used, such as:

  1. Flat welding position
  2. Horizontal welding position
  3. Vertical welding position
  4. Overhead welding position
  5. Inclined welding position

Below are some of the basic types of welding positions that will help you to weld well and get better results:

1. Flat Welding Positions

The flat is the easiest way for welders to begin welding if they are initially welding. As flat welding shows that the welder is not working against gravity, everything is fine till now. Welding position while fighting gravity can be difficult for the new welder to understand the positioning. That is why they are requested to begin with the flat welding position.

However, any other welding process can occur while staying flat. Hence, with the help of a flat position, weld puddles will always stay fluid and can get wet into the joints quickly. A drag technique must be used while using this welding position, and the recommended technique is also the use of drag technique instead of the push technique.

This welding technique works best when the machine is in the 1F and 1G positions. Thus, you may achieve incomplete fusion during which the two electrode pieces come together.

1G Weld Position:

The 1 G welds position is also known as the flat weld position. Therefore, it is also considered the simplest and the most accessible welding position for welders. The workpiece remains horizontal to deposit the weld bead while using gravity during this technique. It is used to join tubes or pipes for pipe welding with the help of horizontal and straight axis.

2. Horizontal Welding Position

Another welding position is the horizontal welding position, during which the weld axis is placed in the horizontal position. Moreover, it can easily weld horizontally, but its features and welding process are similar to the flat welding position.

2G and 2F weld positions are used during this process. However, 2G welds are slighter complex than a 2F weld. So, be careful while handling both positions during welding. The bottom shelf is provided by 2F, usually used to control the sagging. Furthermore, it also prevents the weld puddles from sagging too much.

During this welding process, the welder has to maintain a position against gravity to combat the effect of gravity. Heat is an essential component that focuses on the process where two joints come together. Moreover, any welding process can be used in the horizontal position.

Tip: Try not to run too hot horizontal weld in a puddle

2F Welding Position:

2F welding position comes under the category of horizontal welding position as it involves the placement of the workpiece in the vertical direction. During this process or positioning, the welder must control the sagging and dripping of filler metal deposition due to gravity.

3. Vertical Welding Position

Vertical welding positions can take place, or they can operate in two ways, 1) vertical up way and 2) vertical down way. Vertically up way is more common if thicker materials are welded. This welding position can’t be converted into a horizontal or flat position.

Quality welds will not be produced using flat and horizontal welds. The weld parameters can be adjusted to achieve the best results in vertical welds.

Remember that the heat setup should be set lower to fight gravity. For thicker base metal, this type of welding is the right way.

3G Welding Position:

3G welding position comes under the category of vertical position. Therefore, in this case, the workpiece lies vertically. Besides, the weld joint is also positioned vertically. This type of position lessens the difficulty risk while welding plus, it also helps to combat the effects of gravity.

4. Overhead Welding Position

Overhead is another type of welding position required when working on a fixed piece of metal, tool, or equipment that cannot move. The welder requires a comfortable position to complete the process of overhead welding position. Therefore, the welder must lie down straight or on the ground or floor of their shop to complete the task of overhead welding.

Techniques used for vertical welding can be easily applied to overhead welding. However, the 4 G welding position is required to slightly manipulate the weld puddle to wash it better at the toes.

Moreover, it would help if you dialled back parameters to run a cooler to cool down the overheard weld. To prevent yourself from the spark, you must take extra protection to protect your head from any dangerous spark while welding.

Tip: You may use bandanas, overhead caps, the best welding helmet, or anything that completely protects your head.

4G Welding Position:

4G welding position comes under the category of overhead welding. During this technique, the workpiece is held in a horizontal position as the underside of the welder is to be welded. It is a perfect technique that prevents filler metal from flowing out of the joint. High expertise and welding skills are required to create fillet welds in the particular 4G position in the welding process.

5. Inclined Welding Position

In this position, the user or the welder must display the workplace inclinedly. As a result, gravity causes the molten to flow downwards further in a flat position. A minor arc is also further produced, laying the beads in the inclined position.

5G Welding Position:

The 5G welding position is used for pipe welding. Especially when the pipe axis cannot be rotated or turned and becomes horizontally stable.

Two method weld also exist, which include 5G uphill and 5G downhill weld. However, in the uphill weld position, the welder begins from overhead to horizontal and then to flat welding. On the other hand, with the downhill weld position, the welder begins from a flat position to a horizontal position and then to the overhead position.

6G Welding Position:

The 6 G welding position is considered the most challenging welding position. However, it is similar to 5G, but the positioning and angle of the pipe are different. The pipe angle remains 45 degrees. Therefore, this type of welding position requires three vertical, flat, and horizontal positions.

This type of welding is mainly used in installing and fabricating pipelines or pipes in oil and gas industries or plants.

Trick: You must practice the welding position before choosing the correct one. This will help you adapt suitably and give you extraordinary results.

FAQs about Welding Positions

1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G welding positions play significant roles in various welding processes. Some of the processes include mechanical engineering and product design.

To ensure high-quality, strong, and durable weld, a welder must master the three most prominent welding positions that will effectively weld bead and manipulate filler metal.

Welding is considered a critical process for product design, joining various components, mechanical engineering, structure forming, or joining pipes.


If you are a welder or a beginner, you must consider all the techniques mentioned above for welding. These positions will help you weld well and gain high-quality results. Even before welding, you must position the workpiece in different positions, which will help you quickly learn the workpiece’s suitability while choosing the correct position.

However, performing well is good if you know the correct welding position. You can also pass a few practices to adjust the workpieces according to the desired position conveniently. Being in a comfortable position is relevant to gaining the required weld. You can also learn from a good welding school about all welding techniques

Lastly, the filler metal you select will help you determine the accurate position, so do go for it.

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *